1. I negoziati di pace, generalmente, sono incentrati sulle dimensioni politica ed economica. Quale è la Sua percezione della necessità di toccare aspetti più profondi e genuini della riconciliazione e come si può ottenere questo?
One of the most important things in conflict resolution is the ability to see the conflict’s cultural, social, gender, civilization and religious dimensions, together with the re-strengthening of social ties, because focusing on these dimensions gives reconciliation a genuine dimension, rather than being an accord of exchange of interests. We may take as an example what happens in my country when the conflict erupts again amongst tribes in Darfur although political and economic interests have been taken into consideration when reconciliation was first made. in my country, even the political causes behind a conflict are driven by a cultural element deep in the souls of people: a tribe is angry when a candidate from another tribe wins elections.Even competition over natural resources is influenced by political, economic and cultural factors. On the one hand, it is failure by authorities to provide for means of livelihood for all who compete over natural resources, as well as failure by local government (and tribal administration which is called native administration) to control and contain this competition so it will always remain peaceful in nature. Poverty is a great influence, coupled with lack of economic development in many of the rural areas. The one to blame for the absence of balanced economic and social development is the political regime. So one factor leads to another, and one should always look at the bigger picture if we want to identify the elements and address all aspects.
2. Quali sono le condizioni nelle quali, al di là dell’assicurare gli interessi della parti in conflitto, può essere stabilito un processo incentrato su un senso di equità e dignità?
To conduct studies or dialogues with all communities in conflict in order to identify to what extent each party accept actually.The first step to solving a problem is to identify the problem and examine its root causes. Here one sees cultural and religious dimensions related to identity, as well as economic, social and political ones which all require addressing.If my tribe believe that the one who toils the soil does so because God has denied them the blessing of owning cattle and are, therefore, sub-human entities; how come that a paper signed by the chief of my tribe compels me to renounce such an opinion and respect the rights of that person as a fully-fledged human being? The matter needs studies and long-term civic education, revision of education curricula to strengthen the concepts of respect of the humanity of the other; in addition to reviewing strategies of civil society.Once more we go back to the origin of the problem; that people felt justice was not done and their dignity was not preserved. We have to ask ourselves: was this at the level of leaders or rather at the level of each individual? Our approach should be aimed at individuals and not the leaders and the government. If we do not target the individual, we are simply imposing resolutions on people. The state pushes community leaders and leaders impose what they accept on the individuals. Therefore, reconciliation is superficial and not deep rooted.Fairness dictates preserving rights of all. This requires that legislation, customary law and the norms of the people have justice and fairness as their first goal. This, in turn, requires a great effort, political will and a long-term civic education. It also involves including these values in school curricula, educating media people and activists of civil society.In Addis Ababa, in the 1970s, the settlement facilitated by elements of civil society (churches) did not address issues of justice, fairness and dignity. Failure to implement the agreement led to another, more violent episode of civil war. If the majority of members of society are not convinced that a settlement (and the work that follows) aims at spreading justice and preserving dignity, conflict will once again erupt.The media in my country cares more for incidents of an opposition leader for a couple of hours for carrying out an act the government does not approve. At the same time, we never hear of hundreds (sometimes thousands) of individual cases of citizens detained on the whim of members of the security, military intelligence, the police and other agencies of law enforcement and justice. In most of the cases the real causes for such unlawful detention is mere settling of personal scores that have nothing to do with committing a crime. All seem to believe that a few hours of the lives of political leaders are of more value than days, weeks, months or perhaps years of the lives of simple people. Thus, concepts of justice, equality before the law, impunity and dignity do need re-examining.
3. Quanto il perdono è essenziale alla dimensione della riconciliazione? Alla radice della Sua cultura politica e/o della Sua fede religiosa quali sono i principi che implicano o escludono il perdono? Quali versi o detti che fanno parte del Suo personale patrimonio spirituale possono, nella sua opinione, avere un significato universale
Forgiveness is considered of absolute importance. It is on basis of forgiveness that all forms of reconciliation can be built, as well as ensuring that the social fabric is in harmony in a sustainable manner.The failure to settle and reconcile differences is a driver of conflict. In our culture, we have this tendency to say “let’s start a new page, forget what happened“. It helps the politicians to have signatures on the papers of reconciliation.The failure to settle and reconcile differences is a driver of conflict. In our culture, we have this tendency to say “let’s start a new page, forget what happened“. It helps the politicians to have signatures on the papers of reconciliation.There cannot be a permanent reconciliation without forgiveness. Forgiveness is the foundation and, without it, some circumstances may arise, there is clear encouragement for the principle of forgiveness, to the extent that the frequency with which forgiveness is called for has depleted its value and has made it a mere slogan repeated here and there. This is manifest in the incidents of a conflict restarting even after accepting calls for forgiveness, although experiences elsewhere in the continent show how effective forgiveness is.Factors that discourage and deter people from forgiveness are a) reaction to rendering the concept a mere cliché of no value and, b) in the Sudan, tribes have in their folk heritage forgiveness associated with weakness. All like to be seen as the stronger party and, therefore, the tendency towards vengeance and snatching the rights by force. These, among other misconceptions, make forgiveness an unacceptable option.Verses from the Quran:People misinterpret the following to discourage reconciliation:“Be not weary and faint-hearted, crying for peace, when ye should be uppermost: for Allah is“But this is cited by those opt for peace, even with those who embrace religions other than Islam:“With you, and will never put you in loss for your (good) deeds.” Surat Muhammad: 35“But if the enemy incline towards peace, do thou (also) incline towards peace, and trust in Allah: for He is One that heareth and knoweth” (all things). Surat anfal: 61The police officer in Geissan Locality (Blue Nile state), on his way to work, takes the initiative of solving small dispute before they snowball into larger conflict to be brought before him as a legal dispute that dictates taking action.
4. Il perdono richiede qualche forma di pentimento da parte di coloro a cui il perdono viene offerto? Il perdono ha condizioni o è senza condizioni?
In our religious culture, forgiveness from god requires repenting what wrongs one does. Therefore, this concept is at the back of the minds of people from whom you seek forgiveness. It must be conditional and the first of such conditions is that people have confidence you will not go back to do what you were doing. Secondly, forgiveness involves assigning rights, on the part of those who forgive. Such assigning of rights must have something in exchange.The council must not look at matters from above and must avoid the errors of too much politicising of previous conflicts and differences. The ICC, for instance, had its case rendered a target for criticism, although the court was established for a noble end: putting an end to impunity. But because the principal powers of the planet care more for their own interests, the court had its credibility marred and does not now command the acceptance of all.The most important element in structures and activity of this global council is that the council shall have awareness raising and civic education of all actors of relevance (representatives of civil society, activists, official authorities, law enforcement agencies, justice agencies, legislators and media people and the like).Recently, there have been attempts to establish principles in the fields of business (quality control, ISO, etc), environment (carbon credit, etc) and many other causes. There should be some principles and standards suitable for comparison and encouragement of positive actions and deterrence of negative activity.
ARA PACIS INITIATIVES FOR PEACE ONLUS
Organizzazione internazionale senza scopo di lucro dedicata alla dimensione umana della pace
Torretta de’ Massimi – Via della Pisana, 600
00163 Roma RM (Italia)
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