Riflessioni sul Perdono, sulla Dignità e sulla Riconciliazione

Palwasha Kakar

1. I negoziati di pace, generalmente, sono incentrati sulle dimensioni politica ed economica. Quale è la Sua percezione della necessità di toccare aspetti più profondi e genuini della riconciliazione e come si può ottenere questo?

In most peace negotiations there are 2 elements:

  • Political
  • Economy

There are other elements can play role in the implementation of building peace and national solidarity, namely:

  • Sense of responsibility in front of own society and international society
  • Flexibility
  • Internal, Regional and international pressures to force the parties to sit around the table for peace negotiation
  • Honesty
  • Commitment to the accord that is signed
  • Finding out that these conflicts cannot be ended without peace and reconciliation – if one of the parties finds out that that the others are pursuing their goal through fighting, they will not come to the table for negotiation and peace. A good example of this was observed in Sri Lanka where in spite of several peace offers by the Tamil Tigers, the Defence Minister, the Government and the army ignored the offers and continued fighting until they defeated the Tamil Tigers. 
  • Regional & international guarantees can also play a role in the peace process. The best example of that is the lack of honesty and lack of international and regional guarantee between the Taliban and Uzbek commanders, which resulted the killing of more than 10,000 Taliban in Laili desert located in Faryab province in 1995.

2. Quali sono le condizioni nelle quali, al di là dell’assicurare gli interessi della parti in conflitto, può essere stabilito un processo incentrato su un senso di equità e dignità?

The most important term when seeking to resolve a conflict is “critical points”. Without solving the critical points, peace and reconciliation become impossible. For instance, a few year ago an agreement was made between leaders of Mujaheedin in Mecca and the Saudi King, but after a few weeks this contract of peace ended because the main point that caused the conflict was not solved during the meeting. So, it is very important to first solve the critical points, after which any process to satisfy both parties can come into being. Acceptable, Respectable and Just.

  • Participation of both parties in the economic and political affairs of the country. 
  • Facilitation of justice at the beginning and end of the activity for all the ethnicities without any discrimination. 
  • Committed to the implementation of social and economic justice. D- Inserting in the constitution equal rights such as: freedom and rights in Economic, Political, and Religious activities as well as the right to vote and freedom of speech.

3. Quanto il perdono è essenziale alla dimensione della riconciliazione? Alla radice della Sua cultura politica e/o della Sua fede religiosa quali sono i principi che implicano o escludono il perdono? Quali versi o detti che fanno parte del Suo personale patrimonio spirituale possono, nella sua opinione, avere un significato universale

According to my experience, peace without forgiveness is impossible. In reconciliation, sometimes peace may come into being without forgiveness when the stronger side forces the other party into a peace contract, but it is not durable. These are the main points for existing, growing and reconciliation in our national, political and religious cultures.

  • Both parties stay with their commitments of forgiving.
  • Regret their previous actions.
  • Forgetting the past conflict. 
  • Believing that fighting on one hand is not the way to a solution and on the other hand does not bring prosperity to society.

The most famous proverbs in our society are:

  • An injury forgiven is better than an injury revenged.
  • One doesn’t wash away blood with blood.
  • Let bygones be bygones.
  • To err is Human, to forgive divine.
  • In the long run, right will win out.

Just to quote one example of forgiveness from Islamic history:

While Mecca captured on 8 Hegri year(I think incident to 628 milady) that time the prophet Hazrat Mohammad (peace be upon him) ordered that all the people were to be safe and secure without discrimination (even the people & tribes who had the personal enemy with Hazrat Mohammad, peace be upon him).
As the result of this forgiveness, most of the people of this city became Muslim.

4. Il perdono richiede qualche forma di pentimento da parte di coloro a cui il perdono viene offerto? Il perdono ha condizioni o è senza condizioni?

Although Forgiveness in peace and reconciliation is the main term, we should remember that sometimes, although a person may regret previous action, it is not possible to be forgiven due to vast and continuous crimes against the people and country. For example Assadull Sarwari is still in jail in Kabul although all the members of the old communist party have been forgiven by Sebghatulla Mujadadi, our first President of Afghanistan after Dr. Najibulla’s rule over Afghanistan collapsed. So it means sometimes forgiveness faces some special conditions. In our culture, showing regret in public or in the media is seen as embarrassing. Also human dignity is important for the ending of the conflict because attendance at peace & reconciliation talks is a means of showing regret and apologizing for their past actions.

In relation to the organization of the Council the following structure is suggested:

  • The financial and economic part through which the Council can achieve its main goals.
  • Political & Advisory board, through which the initiative and active, passionate persons work. Hiring in this department the following persons would be very suitable:
    1. Popular, influential people of the region 
    2. Religious persons from the same religion as the conflict parties and who can play significant a significant role
    3. Those people who are familiar with the habits, culture & traditional of the people of the area 
    4. Media, through which to inform the world. Conflict groups should receive in advance information regarding the organization
    5. Unfortunately, this structure cannot have any executive because in that case it can be another United Nation Security Council, which we all know is not possible.

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