1. I negoziati di pace, generalmente, sono incentrati sulle dimensioni politica ed economica. Quale è la Sua percezione della necessità di toccare aspetti più profondi e genuini della riconciliazione e come si può ottenere questo?
In my experience it is important to address how people “feel” about what has happened to them as well as the political and economic dimensions. There will be no lasting peace if people ‘s hearts are filled with hatred and desire for revenge. Complementary to the political and economic are the psychological, emotional and spiritual impact of conflict and division on individuals, communities and nations. It is also important that hurting people are provided with a platform where they can speak about what has been done and it can be respectfully acknowledged. This is where publically conducted Truth and Reconcilations Commissions have a role to play. However such commissions need to be linked with comprehensive forms of rehabilitation, reparation and restorative justice for the relatives of victims and survivors. Nor should we underestimate the power and importance of publc apology for past wrongs by the leaders of nations.
2. Quali sono le condizioni nelle quali, al di là dell’assicurare gli interessi della parti in conflitto, può essere stabilito un processo incentrato su un senso di equità e dignità?
A great deal depends on the context and it can be difficult to generalise. Always there is a need as far as possible to “level the playing field”. It is desirable that there should be an “honest broker” – person or persons who are seen as neutral and objective – dealing consistently, transparently and fairly with all the parties to the conflict. Sadly, often it is when the people have becme “war weary” that leaders realise that they cannot win militarily and seek a negotiated settlement.
3. Quanto il perdono è essenziale alla dimensione della riconciliazione? Alla radice della Sua cultura politica e/o della Sua fede religiosa quali sono i principi che implicano o escludono il perdono? Quali versi o detti che fanno parte del Suo personale patrimonio spirituale possono, nella sua opinione, avere un significato universale
Reconciliation can be seen as the fruit of a journey of forgiveness. However one side may decide to forgive and the other side may not choose to reciprocate. For Christians, forgiveness is central to their faith – it is there in the Lord’s Prayer: “Forgive us our sins, as we forgive those who sin against us.” and also in the prayer Jesus offers on the cross: “Father forgive them for they know not what they do”. Problem is that forgiveness is spoken of as if it is something cheap, and simple and glib whereas for most people it is something costly, painful and difficult. For most of us it is not something small, it is smething big. It is interesting to note that the Greek word in the New Testament for forgiveness is the same word as untying a knot. When people are hurting, it may not always be forgiveness which is paramount but much more importantly, the acknowledgment of the wrong that was done.
4. Il perdono richiede qualche forma di pentimento da parte di coloro a cui il perdono viene offerto? Il perdono ha condizioni o è senza condizioni?
I believe that part of the journey of forgiveness is repentance – to be truly sorry for the harm caused and an ernest desire not to repeat. I once read that to say “I forgive you” is also an accusation – you are telling someone that they did it – but maybe the person being forgiven is not convinced that they had done any wrong. I believe that reparation and restitution are part of the journey of forgiveness – it is reductionist to say that forgiveness is simply saying “sorry”.I think a universal council should be a simple structure made up of people with very high integrity, deep listening skills and a great deal of wisdom from a wide variety of contexts. Representivity would also be important. The activities would arise firstly out of a deep reflection of the present situations of conflict facing the world.
ARA PACIS INITIATIVES FOR PEACE ONLUS
Organizzazione internazionale senza scopo di lucro dedicata alla dimensione umana della pace
Torretta de’ Massimi – Via della Pisana, 600
00163 Roma RM (Italia)
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