1. I negoziati di pace, generalmente, sono incentrati sulle dimensioni politica ed economica. Quale è la Sua percezione della necessità di toccare aspetti più profondi e genuini della riconciliazione e come si può ottenere questo?
Social acknowledgement and social dialogue on the pain, committed atrocities, war crimes, human rights violations and social injustice done by the parties of conflict , governments or particular groups are the two essential part of the reconciliation apart the economical and political dimension of it. In order to altar social and self perception of stigmatization, feeling and tenure of being the victim to the status of conflict survival, suffering should be recognized socially and personally. This can be possible with providing a platform of debate and mechanism for forgiveness on which people from all sides of conflict (being victim, perpetrators and the group socio-culturally effected) could trust and put their faith with sense of security on it and quest to seek commonalities among themselves.
2. Quali sono le condizioni nelle quali, al di là dell’assicurare gli interessi della parti in conflitto, può essere stabilito un processo incentrato su un senso di equità e dignità?
The fairness and the dignity of the process to ensure long-term peace, is the at most important element in a process of the reconciliation and the conflict resolution. Meanwhile, creation of such functioning platforms to address reconciliation is essential at the first phase. Sometimes, it becomes hard to ensure the interest of both parties of the conflict and keep the fairness of the process. It can have many factors, but lack of rule of law and order, security and independency of the process both politically and financially are the most important ones. A very clear example can be of Afghanistan and Iraq. In both counties, reconciliation process has been politically influenced and was not financially independent. This results a fragile process. It can fail at the any moment, which in Afghanistan it is at the edge of failing. Furthermore, we should not forget the local ownership of the process and the support of the civil society organizations (in particular human rights groups) and international community. This part is very sensitive which needs a delegate management in the process of the reconciliation and peace-building, as role of international community usually interprets as interference in the process of conflict resolution, transitional justice and peace-building efforts by the perpetrator to the locals.
3. Quanto il perdono è essenziale alla dimensione della riconciliazione? Alla radice della Sua cultura politica e/o della Sua fede religiosa quali sono i principi che implicano o escludono il perdono? Quali versi o detti che fanno parte del Suo personale patrimonio spirituale possono, nella sua opinione, avere un significato universale
Forgiveness is the soul of the reconciliation. It relates to the personal feeling of the person affected by certain circumstances in the time of the war or the violence. This is the forgiveness that really ensures the healing process personally and socially.For sure the understanding, value and roots of the forgiveness in the socio-cultural structures of Afghanistan are very much visible. But it is limited to number of educated people and ethnical division of the country. Islam plays a central rule in all dimensions of reconciliation. But at the meantime, it paves the way for introducing of Sharia Law in other aspects of the society. Secondly, as tradition of vengeance in tribal and ethnic’s structures plays much more important role in Afghanistan, Islam is overshadowed in majority of the situations.
4. Il perdono richiede qualche forma di pentimento da parte di coloro a cui il perdono viene offerto? Il perdono ha condizioni o è senza condizioni?
I think that repentance, socio-cultural shame or regret is the main obstacle to the process of forgiveness and social acceptance of committed crimes. The window for talk, offer and acceptance of forgiveness should be open in all circumstance in post conflict countries or countries with past-present experiences of social discrimination and human rights abuses. This will help to foster a longer lasting peace process, and will help in ending the vicious cycle of vengeance. However in regard to the unconditional process of forgiveness, I am not agreeing. Forgiveness should be conditional. Conditions can differ in different socio-political context. But end to the repentance of the same or any other crimes against humanity should be guaranteed by the individuals and the groups granted forgiveness. At the same time, there should be endeavor to immunize the process of forgiveness and the conditions for forgiveness for political benefit.
What the structure and activities you would suggest the universal council of reconciliation?
ARA PACIS INITIATIVES FOR PEACE ONLUS
Organizzazione internazionale senza scopo di lucro dedicata alla dimensione umana della pace
Torretta de’ Massimi – Via della Pisana, 600
00163 Roma RM (Italia)
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