Riflessioni sul Perdono, sulla Dignità e sulla Riconciliazione

Bahram Rahman

1. I negoziati di pace, generalmente, sono incentrati sulle dimensioni politica ed economica. Quale è la Sua percezione della necessità di toccare aspetti più profondi e genuini della riconciliazione e come si può ottenere questo?

Social acknowledgement and social dialogue on the pain, committed atrocities, war crimes, human rights violations and social injustice done by the parties of conflict , governments or particular groups are the two essential part of the reconciliation apart the economical and political dimension of it. In order to altar social and self perception of stigmatization, feeling and tenure of being the victim to the status of conflict survival, suffering should be recognized socially and personally. This can be possible with providing a platform of debate and mechanism for forgiveness on which people from all sides of conflict (being victim, perpetrators and the group socio-culturally effected) could trust and put their faith with sense of security on it and quest to seek commonalities among themselves.

2. Quali sono le condizioni nelle quali, al di là dell’assicurare gli interessi della parti in conflitto, può essere stabilito un processo incentrato su un senso di equità e dignità?

The fairness and the dignity of the process to ensure long-term peace, is the at most important element in a process of the reconciliation and the conflict resolution. Meanwhile, creation of such functioning platforms to address reconciliation is essential at the first phase. Sometimes, it becomes hard to ensure the interest of both parties of the conflict and keep the fairness of the process. It can have many factors, but lack of rule of law and order, security and independency of the process both politically and financially are the most important ones. A very clear example can be of Afghanistan and Iraq. In both counties, reconciliation process has been politically influenced and was not financially independent. This results a fragile process. It can fail at the any moment, which in Afghanistan it is at the edge of failing. Furthermore, we should not forget the local ownership of the process and the support of the civil society organizations (in particular human rights groups) and international community. This part is very sensitive which needs a delegate management in the process of the reconciliation and peace-building, as role of international community usually interprets as interference in the process of conflict resolution, transitional justice and peace-building efforts by the perpetrator to the locals.

3. Quanto il perdono è essenziale alla dimensione della riconciliazione? Alla radice della Sua cultura politica e/o della Sua fede religiosa quali sono i principi che implicano o escludono il perdono? Quali versi o detti che fanno parte del Suo personale patrimonio spirituale possono, nella sua opinione, avere un significato universale

Forgiveness is the soul of the reconciliation. It relates to the personal feeling of the person affected by certain circumstances in the time of the war or the violence. This is the forgiveness that really ensures the healing process personally and socially.
For sure the understanding, value and roots of the forgiveness in the socio-cultural structures of Afghanistan are very much visible. But it is limited to number of educated people and ethnical division of the country. Islam plays a central rule in all dimensions of reconciliation. But at the meantime, it paves the way for introducing of Sharia Law in other aspects of the society. Secondly, as tradition of vengeance in tribal and ethnic’s structures plays much more important role in Afghanistan, Islam is overshadowed in majority of the situations.

4. Il perdono richiede qualche forma di pentimento da parte di coloro a cui il perdono viene offerto? Il perdono ha condizioni o è senza condizioni?

I think that repentance, socio-cultural shame or regret is the main obstacle to the process of forgiveness and social acceptance of committed crimes. The window for talk, offer and acceptance of forgiveness should be open in all circumstance in post conflict countries or countries with past-present experiences of social discrimination and human rights abuses. This will help to foster a longer lasting peace process, and will help in ending the vicious cycle of vengeance. However in regard to the unconditional process of forgiveness, I am not agreeing. Forgiveness should be conditional. Conditions can differ in different socio-political context. But end to the repentance of the same or any other crimes against humanity should be guaranteed by the individuals and the groups granted forgiveness. At the same time, there should be endeavor to immunize the process of forgiveness and the conditions for forgiveness for political benefit.

What the structure and activities you would suggest the universal council of reconciliation?

  • Network building/Collaborations:
    Network building with the other different organizations and initiative (Internationally) which focus on other dimension in peace building, reconciliation and forgiveness. Such collaborations a will facilitate in acting as a effecting force in implementation of the activities in national, regional or international level.
  • Discussions / Dialogue between (Elite to Citizens to Citizens):
    With the conductions of different formats of discussion sessions, in wide range of society, people’s awareness will be increased. This will help to mobilize a grass level support for this process. Such sessions, can have different formats. As in example: In local level use of theatre of oppressed to convey message and stimulate public debate on the era of war and crimes.
  • Inclusion of Gender Aspect to the process:
    All activities should be gender sensitive. Most often women are forgotten in such process. Crimes committed against women such as rape, force marriages, force domestic labor should be added to the agenda.
  • Publication/Distribution:
    Debated issues in this council should be published in different languages. Those materials later on should be distributed to respected countries in order to increase awareness, self motivation and provide ownership of the process to the local level. Furthermore, expert analysis and studies should be carried out in with the help of this council locally and internationally.
  • Influence of decision makers:
    There should be quest to collaborate between decision makers individually or institutionally to support this process and increase the influence of proposed agendas in the country, regional and international level. Collaboration of the council should not stay limited with civil society organizations (Included Religious Scholars), and it should stretch to reach media professionals (Particularly Radio Experts), members of parliament, and relevant personals from executive body of the government.
  • Information sharing exchange between members of the council:
    To keep the sustainability of the level of information, knowledge and experience between the members of the council, there should be programs of “Information Exchange.” Such programs and be with different theme such as, conferences on topic related issues relevant to the reconciliation efforts, common space in publishing news, analysis, researches, fact findings, testimonies, and other type of studies. This space should be available for all members of council and individuals interested to this process. For sure, such platforms will help in wider range of information sharing, building stronger ties between the members of the council and constant update of the issues for all members from different geographic areas.

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